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More about PAs

  • PA-C stands for Physician Assistant/Associate (Certified)

  • The first PA class graduated from the Duke University PA program on Oct. 6, 1967.

  • "PAs (physician associates/physician assistants) are licensed clinicians who practice medicine in every specialty and setting. Trusted, rigorously educated and trained healthcare professionals, PAs are dedicated to expanding access to care and transforming health and wellness through patient-centered, team-based medical practice."- American Academy of Physican Assistants

PA medical training requirements:

  • Masters of Science Degree in Physician Assistant Studies (3 academic years).

    • In-person classes 5 days a week from 8-5pm.

      • For my classmates and I, a majority of weekday evenings and weekends were also filled with additional labs & studying.

    • The PA program schooling was based on traditional medical school model.

    • A bachelor's degree with pre-med requisites is required to be completed prior to PA school with a competitive GPA generally being 3.9 or higher. 

    • Unlike medical schools, a majority of PA schools require previous paid clinical or medical experience of anywhere from 500-2000 hours before applying

  • Degree includes

    •  Rigorous didactic courses in pharmacology, anatomy & physiology and pathophysiology.

    • Human anatomy cadaver lab

    • Required clinical rotations in primary medicine, internal medicine, OB/GYN, general surgery, psychology, pediatrics and elective specialties

      • My electives included pain medicine/spine orthopedics and additional internal medicine as a hospitalist


A Physician Associate can:

  •  Diagnose and treat a majority of medical conditions including pain medicine. 

  • Prescribe medications.

    • Prescription authority is regulated by the Physician Assistant's own personal medical license.

    • Physician assistants in Minnesota (and many other states) are able to practice medicine without direct supervision as long as a practice agreement has been established with a licensed physician and is reviewed annually

  • PA's are required to maintain 100 continuing education credits every 2 years as well as pass board exams when due to maintain licensure.


  • Physician assistants are helping increase access to healthcare and trying to keep the focus on patient-centered care.

  • Very importantly - Physician assistants are not trying to replace physicians. In fact, Moderni Spine is happy to collaborate with many physician groups across the metro.

  • Everyone in medicine including nurses, PAs, Nurse Practitioners, chiropractors and even Physicians (MD, DO) have a scope of practice. Any medical professional needs to continue to work within the scope of their training and continuing education. Physicians' expertise may be needed for more advanced diagnosis, more advanced interventional procedures or even surgery. 

Physician Associate @Moderni Spine

Every patient should be aware that you will be treated by myself, a PA-C

  • There is not a treating or supervising physician on-site.

  • At any point in time, you have the right to seek care from a physician, however I will also make the recommendation and referral if I too feel a physician's evaluation is needed. 

I want the best possible outcome for my patients as any healthcare provider should.

I PRACTICE WITHIN MY SCOPE. If you become outside of my scope we will find the referral solution together.

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